Properties of Rubber

With a wide variety of advanced equipment in our laboratory we can test or measure almost all properties of rubber:

 

Physical-mechanical properties of rubber

 

Density: ISO 2781

Rubber density determines the specific gravity of the material, such as foam rubber, TPE, plastic or (un)vulcanised rubber. This test is often used for quality control of rubber materials in addition to the amount of specific ingredients required to produce a certain volume of material. Read more about density.

 

Hardness: ISO 48 (IRHD) or ISO 7619-1 (Shore A)

Shore A and IRHD are two methods to determine the hardness of rubber. Depending on the dimensions of the rubber material the best suitable method will be selected. Read more about hardness.

 

Tensile strength of rubber / stress-strain diagram of rubber - ISO 37

The stress-strain properties of rubber can be tested at room and/or elevated temperature. In this test the tensile strength, elongation at break and  stiffness will be determined. Read more about the stress-strain test. Read more about tensile strength.

 

Tear resistance - ISO 34-1 and ISO 34-2

Tear resistance is an indication for the force a rubber material can still withstand when it already shows damage. There are various methods to measure tear strength, including crescent, angle, trouser and Delft. We can perform these tests both at room temperature and at application-specific elevated temperatures. Read more about Tear Strength.

 

Bulk modulus test - compression force diagram ISO 7743

Rubber can be strained or sheared with relatively little force. But one of rubber its specific material properties is that it has a high bulk modulus, which means that it requires relatively a lot of force to compress it. Read more about Bulk modulus testing.

 

Rubber elasticity/resilience test - ISO 4662

One of the main properties of rubber is elasticity. The level of resilience differs per material and is measured according the the Schob method, by dropping a hammer onto the rubber material from a specific height and measuring how far it bounces back up relative to its original height. 

 

Compression set (ISO 815-1 or 815-2) or stress-relaxation (ISO 3384-1)

These are indications for the permanent deformation or reduction in force to keep the product compressed of a material after or during it has been compressed or strained for a certain time under specific conditions. It is a good indication for the elasticity and crosslink density and gives therefore insight in the sealing properties of a rubber material.Read more about compression set and stress-relaxation.

 

Ageing resistance properties of rubber

 

Ozone resistance - ISO 1431-1

Rubber products used in the open air may be affected by ozone (O3), which is present in the atmosphere. This can result in crack formation, and eventually cause the product to show rupture. Some rubber compounds are naturally ozone resistant, others can be mixed with anti-degradants that make them ozone resistant during a specific service life. Ozone resistance can be tested at different temperatures, ozone concentrations and exposure times. More on ozone resistance.

 

Hot-air resistance - ISO 188

Hot-air ageing gives an indication of the maximum operating temperatures or resistance to elevated temperatures of rubber compounds based on changes in hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, stiffness and possibly mass and volume after hot-air ageing during a specified period at a specified temperature. Ageing tests over specific periods at various elevated temperatures also make it possible to determine expected service life. More on hot-air resistance.

 

Weathering resistance - ISO 4892-2

UV radiation can cause polymer degradation, while sunlight often causes discolouration. The difference between a QUV tester and a sunlight tester (Xenon) is that a QUV tester only uses UV-A, B and C radiation, while the Xenon tester only tests with some UV-A, visible light and infrared light (IR After ageing for a specified period, the difference in colour is measured and furthermore, changes in material properties can be determined. More on weathering resistance.

 

Dynamical-mechanical properties of rubber

 

DeMattia - ISO 32

Continuous flexing or bending of a rubber product can cause cracks to be formed in the area where forces are being build up due to the flexing or movement. Once a crack has been formed, it will keep growing, and this can eventually cause the product to break completely. It is basically a fatigue test under flexing. Read more about DeMattia

 

Fatigue-to-failure - ISO 6943

This is measuring rubber fatigue-to-failure under repeated cyclical stretching deformation until at a certain moment the rubber will rupture. Read more on fatique to failure. 

 

DMTA - ISO 4664-1

Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) can determine the visco-elastic behaviour of rubber materials in a vulcanised state under various elongation, compression or shearing rates, different frequencies and/or temperatures. Amongst other things the storage and loss moduli and the resulting tan δ: ratio of loss to storage modulus can be measured. More on Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analaysis.

 

Goodrich Flexometer - ISO 4666-3

Cyclic compression of rubber causes heat to develop in the material, which may eventually result in complete internal degradation of the rubber. This is called the Heat Build-Up (HBU) or Blow-Out (BO) test. More on Goodrich Flexometer.

 

Ask us about all our possibilities to determine the properties of rubber

All properties of rubber are determined based on ASTM, DIN, EN, or ISO standards. Do you want us to test the properties of rubber according to another certification standard? Please let us know, so we can tell you whether we can be of service in your specific matter

 

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